It may or may not come as a surprise to you that a pension is frequently the most significant asset divided in a divorce. With that said, it's not a foregone conclusion that you'll have to give up a portion of your pension as part of your divorce settlement. In fact, I'm surprised by the number of cases I see in which the parties decide the pension owner will retain it in its entirety.
First, consider your overall financial picture. If you want to keep the pension and it's one of the more significant assets in your marital estate, you're likely going to be giving up other assets. What are you willing to give up in exchange for the pension?
To get a full financial picture, start by determining the value of the pension. Please note that this is not the value shown on the pension statement. A pension is valued by discounting the future benefit back to the present value. Keep in mind that only the marital portion of the future benefit is used to determine the present value of the marital portion of the pension.
There are several other variables to consider as well, so most people engage a professional to have this done.
Once you know the value, consider the value of your other assets. Keep in mind that your pension was most likely valued on a pre-tax basis. When comparing your pension to other assets in your estate, it would be most similar to a retirement annuity. With that said, there could be some substantial differences based on the annuity contract and the pension plan's rules.
Every pension does not have the same rules. That's why it's essential to fully understand your pension's rules when negotiating whether or not to keep it. Also, pension rules change over time. You may not have a crystal ball to know what the future of your pension holds. You should still at least be aware of how your pension's rules have changed over time and if the pension board has given any indication of future changes.
Consider the following:
A plan summary is, very simply, a document that gives a detailed description of the benefits of the pension plan. Employers are required to publish this summary every few years and distribute (or make it available) to all pension plan participants.
Consider and document when you first started contributing to the pension plan. Was it before or after you married? Any amount contributed before your marriage will remain yours, while anything added afterward may be considered marital property.
The “relative time” method is the most common method of dividing pensions during a divorce. The approach views each year of participation in the pension plan as equally important when it comes to the result. Therefore, if you and your spouse were married for ten years, but you participated in your pension for 30, then only 10/30 or 33% of the pension is considered a marital asset.
The pension plan determines the future benefit by an actuarial formula the employer provides. In the case of public employees, including teachers and those employed by the government, variables include:
Unlike a traditional retirement account, the value of your pension is not based on the money withheld from your income or added to the account over the years. Knowing that, whether you plan to split or keep your pension in a divorce, it’s important to contact someone with experience in doing so.
If you participate in a public pension, have you been contributing to that account in lieu of social security? While social security is not considered a divisible asset in a divorce, there is a precedence in certain states to offset the value of the public pension with the value of the spouse's social security benefit (since they've contributed to social security while you contributed to your pension). This does add some additional complexity to the issue, but it also may help you to negotiate keeping your retirement benefit intact.
If a pension is divided in a divorce, a portion of the future benefit is awarded to the non-employee spouse.
Depending on the type of pension that is divided, either a Qualified Domestics Relations Order (QDRO), Division of Property Order (DOPO) or Court Order Acceptable for Processing (COAP) is required. These orders need to be signed by the judge and filed with the pension plan.
We offer a long list of state and federal pension information on the Resources page of this site. That's an excellent place to find additional information about your specific pension if you're a public employee.
It's important to remember that a pension is an illiquid asset. You can't pull money out of it whenever you need cash. Make sure that it fits within your overall financial goals. Sometimes having liquid assets is actually more valuable than having the security of the future benefit. If you are not sure if you can afford to keep your pension, contact Great Lakes Divorce Financial Solutions. We can work with you to create a broader financial plan to determine if retaining your full pension makes economic sense.